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Microevolution Quiz

Question 1

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A population of pond snails has two genetically determined types: one with a black stripe on its shell and one with a plain brown shell. Evidence indicates that there is absolutely no difference between the two snail types in terms of their fitness: each type survives, grows, and mates with the same average level of success. Over time, black-striped snails become more or less common in a population due to chance events. At one point, for example, the pond nearly dries up and the few surviving snails happen to be mostly black-striped. This evolutionary change is the result of…

• natural selection

• genetic drift

• mutation

• sexual selection

• gene flow

Question 2

Each year a gardener saves seeds from those tomato plants that produce the juiciest fruits. She uses these seeds to plant the next year’s crop of 20 plants. Over time, the gardener develops her own special variety of very juicy tomatoes. This is best described as an example of…

• artificial selection

• natural selection

• genetic drift

• sexual selection

• mutation

Question 3

Humans are the only primate species in which mammary glands (breasts) remain large and prominent throughout adulthood. Other primates’ mammary glands swell only when they are nursing offspring; scientists are not sure why human females have noticeable breasts on a permanent basis. One hypothesis is that they increase a female’s ability to attract mates. If so, this would be an example of a trait favored by…

• gene flow

• natural selection

• artificial selection

• sexual selection

• genetic drift

Question 4

Modern HIV therapy controls HIV infection through what strategy?

• A single drug that stops viral replication is paired with another drug that prevents the virus from mutating so that it cannot evolve resistance.

• A single very effective drug stops viral replication by targeting a key viral enzyme that is indispensable to the virus.

• Several different drugs are used that target different viral enzymes; if the virus evolves resistance to one drug, a different set of drugs is used.

Question 5

The sickle cell allele is more likely to have higher prevalence in populations where:

• Malaria is present

• Malaria is not present

• Antibiotics are available

• Antibiotics are not available

Question 6

Which gene pool has changed through some process of microevolution?

• A moth population increases from 3,000 individuals to 33,000 individuals over a period of favorable weather.

• Your cells express different genes today than they did when you were born.

• A mouse population (about 10,000 mice total) starts with 99% of the mice tan and 1% white; after 20 years 70% are tan and 30% are white.

Macroevolution Quiz

Question 1

Which best sums up the relationship between microevolution and macroevolution?

• Microevolution occurs through or as a result of macroevolution; it is the outcome of macroevolution operating over long time scales at high levels of organization.

• Macroevolution occurs through or as a result of microevolution; it is the outcome of microevolution operating over long times scales at high levels of organization.

• Microevolution and macroevolution are separate processes that operate under different principles and are not linked.

Question 2

A rare (fictitious) plant species, the Frilly Philodendron, contains a chemical that is helpful in controlling cancer. Biologists would like to find similar chemical compounds and test them for potential medical use. Which would be the most efficient strategy for finding these chemicals?

• Do a phylogenetic analysis and then look in plants that are closely related to the Frilly Philodendron. They will probably produce similar chemical compounds.

• Base your search on geography. Look in other plants that live in the same region as the Frilly Philodendron. They should have similar chemistry because they are exposed to similar climate.

• Base your search on ecology. Look in other plants that live in the same specific habitat with the Frilly Philodendron. In particular, examine all the plants that grow in the same soil type, because they will probably have similar chemistry.

Question 3

Two organisms with a greater number of homologous structures are —- than two organisms with a fewer number of homologous structures.

• More likely to have evolved in the same environment

• Less likely to be closely related

• Less likely to have evolved in the same environment

• More likely to be closely related

Question 4

Which of the following terms would contain all of the other terms within it i.e. which is the most inclusive.

• Clade

• Individual

• Species

• Population

Question 5

According to the data presented here, modern birds are most closely related to

• Tyrannosauroidea

• Pterosauria

• Deinonychosauria

• Ancient birds

Question 6

On the phylogenetic tree diagram above, what is at the branch point labeled “3?”

• Some kind of ape.

• An ancestor that had some of the characteristics that are shared by modern Old world monkeys, apes, and humans.

• Humans.

• An Old world monkey.

Question 7

Which of the following is true?

• Microevolution and macroevolution are not related.

• Macroevolution can lead to microevolution.

• Microevolution can lead to macroevolution.

• Microevolution and macroevolution are the same thing.

Question 8

Speciation is the formation of a new

• clade.

• organism.

• biological lineage.

• population.

Question 9

a

• Scientists could compare the genetics of the viruses and trace the source of the outbreak.

• All of these

• Scientists could compare the genetics of the virus to determine useful antivirals.

• Scientists could compare the symptoms of the new virus with genetically related viruses.

Question 10

According to the phylogenetic tree diagram above, Old world monkeys are most closely related to:

• Lemurs and Lorises

• Tarsiers

• Apes (including humans)

• New world monkeys

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