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Ethical and Legal Issues, health & medical

Question Description

Read one of the following.

Stefaniak, M., & Mazurkiewicz, B. (2017). The importance of adhering to high standards of research ethics. British Journal of Nursing, 26(1), 62. The link to the article may be found in the Syllabus, or the Week 4 Assignments page.

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Feeney, S., & Freeman, N. K. (2016). Ethical issues: Responsibilities and dilemmas. YC: Young Children71(1), 86. The link to the article may be found in the Syllabus, or the Week 4 Assignments page.

Questions for the first article:

  • Describe one reason for adhering to high standards in ethics.
  • What are the dangers of conflict of interest?

Questions for the second article:

  • Discuss the difference between ethical responsibility and ethical dilemma.
  • Share an experience of ethical dilemma or moral distress in nursing today.

You may begin posting in this TD on Sunday, July 23, 2017 for credit

The Institutional Review Board (IRB) must ensure there are special safeguards in place when subjects from vulnerable populations are recruited in research studies. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (n.d.) and the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 21, Part 56.111) identify the following groups as vulnerable:

· Children

· Prisoners

· Pregnant women

· Handicapped

· Mentally disabled

· Economically or Educationally disadvantaged

However, certain IRBs expand the list of vulnerable population groups to include students, employees, terminally ill patients, and patients lacking mental capacity due to their illness (Houser, 2015).

Respect for persons, beneficence, and justice are three major ethical principles described in the Belmont Report. Respect for persons incorporates two ethical principles: individuals should be treated as autonomous agents and persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection (Belmont Report, 1979). With respect to beneficence and research, the researchers shall “do not harm” and maximize possible benefits and minimize potential risks (Belmont Report, 1979). With the ethical principle of justice, the burdens of risks and benefits of research should be equally distributed and simply treating equals equally (Belmont Report, 1979).

As you identify sources of moral distress in nursing, you can view how those instances could potentially make nurses vulnerable as research subjects.

Belmont Report (1979). The Belmont Report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/bel…

Criteria for IRB approval of research, 21 C.F.R. § 56.111 (2015).

Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.) Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (n.d.). Vulnerable Populations. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/policy/populations/

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